Alcohol-related disorders

Alcohol-related disorders

Our culture puts increasing pressure on people to become stronger, richer and more powerful, which causes stress in people who are emotionally sensitive. To deal with such stress, some people resort to external factors or toxic substances that lead to addiction.


This marks the beginning of a vicious cycle that is difficult to break without outside help.

Consumer behavior can be divided into three stages:

  • Moderate consumption
  • High-risk consumption (or the use of problems)
  • Addiction

There are two types of addiction:

  • Psychological addiction
  • Physical dependence

Definition of dependency

– the need to take significantly increased amounts of the substance to achieve the desired actions of the
– significantly reduced effect of the substance with continued use of the same amount by it

Occurrence of withdrawal: when the substance is taken to avoid withdrawal symptoms (physical and psychological symptoms)

The substance is taken in larger amounts or for a longer period of time than the individual intended

Persistent desire for the substance or failed attempts to reduce or control use

You waste a significant part of your time using the substance

Abandonment of important social, professional or recreational activities due to substance use

Definition of Abuse:

Improper use of the substance which causes repeated problems and adverse effects

  • recurrent use of the substance resulting in failure to fulfill basic obligations at school or home (child neglect, absences from school, etc.)
  • recurrent use of the substance in situations where it involves physical hazards (eg driving, operating machinery)
  • recurring substance-related problems (eg substance-related behavioral arrests)
  • continued use of the substance despite the existence of social or interpersonal problems caused by the substance (arguments with the spouse)

As alcoholism progresses, physical changes may occur

  • swollen reddish nose
  • red palms
  • unexplained infections (eg pneumonia)
  • malnutrition
  • malabsorption syndrome
  • gastritis
  • Cancer
  • Arterial hypertension
  • alcoholic hepatitis or cirrhosis
  • pancreatitis

Psychosocial complications

  • minor injuries at home (unexplained bruises from falls)
  • third-party complaints about driving behavior (accidents) • job loss
  • marital discord or abuse of spouse or children • family problems

Psychiatric complications

  • Alcohol-induced dementia
  • Depression
  • Suicide
  • Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (alcoholic encephalopathy) • periods of amnesia (memory gaps)

Alcohol withdrawal syndromes

  • Deprivation (tremor, agitation, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting) occurs within 12-18 hours after cessation of alcohol consumption and peaks within 24-48 hours. It subsides within 5-7 days
  • Alcoholic psychosis (persistent auditory, visual or tactile hallucinations) occurs within 48 hours of cessation of alcohol consumption, lasts 1 week and is likely to go into a chronic state
  • Severe delirium (delirium, confusion, insomnia, hallucinations, fever, agitation, tachycardia) 5% of patients with alcoholism. Onset 2-3 days after cessation of alcohol, symptoms peak 4-5 days later and last 3 days mainly but may also weeks with rare risk of death
  • Alcohol seizures (1-6 generalized seizures) occur within 7-38 hours after cessation of alcohol consumption and peak within 24-48 hours